In this cogitation, the oleogels of hazelnut anoint ( HO ) prepared with CW and SW and their textural, structural, thermal, ocular, and memory properties were examined in contingent. Three different accession levels ( 3, 7, and 10 %, w/w ) of the waxes were besides compared to find out the most suitable one as spreadable product. The oleogels produced in this study were besides compared with a commercial shorten ( CS ) product to reveal the flat of similarities. In addition, memory stability for texture and oxidation was monitored at both room and refrigerator temperatures for three months. furthermore, the roentgenogram diffraction ( XRD ) datum is provided for the oleogels developed. To our best cognition, the literature is lacking for SW oleogels for XRD pattern data. Among others, lifelike waxes have been investigated for their organogelation properties in edible oils. Carnauba wax ( CW ) is produced from the leaves of brazilian palm, Copernicia prunifera. It is normally more expensive than most of the early implant waxes. [ 2 ] In a study, [ 7 ] the organogel properties of rice bran wax, candelilla wax, and CW were compared. The fade temperature and heat content switch of CW were determined to be 84°C and 137.6 J/g, respectively. It was shown that the minimum gel concentration for CW is 4 %, and gelation clock was 13.5 minute. The unfeelingness measure of CW oleogels was the lowest among others. In that sketch, it was concluded that rice bran wax was the best as organogelators when compared with candelilla and CWs. Sunflower wax ( SW ) is produced from the seeds of Helianthus annuus implant. [ 2 ] The organogelation properties of SW with soy vegetable oil were investigated. The minimum quantity required for gelation were determined for many plant waxes, animal waxes, and synthetic waxes in that study, but only SW organogels were studied extensively. It was determined that SW can produce gels at 0.5–10 % concentration with 47–67°C melting point range, and as the wax subject increased in the organogels, the thaw temperatures, enthalpies, and firmnesses enhanced. The microphotographs of SW organogels were besides provided. [ 8 ] oil structure has been a technological challenge for many research efforts. Organogelation is based on a completely different approach than hydrogenation or fractionation. [ 2 ] Briefly, some humble molecular weight organogelator agents are added into melted oil and shuffle, and the oil is entrapped within a thermo-reversible, 3-dimentional net created by the organogelators. obviously there is no change in the fatty acidic composing of the lineage petroleum. For comestible oils, sometimes the term “ oleogel ” is used to distinguish it from other organic phase gels. This technique is fresh, easy to apply, relatively cheaper, and dependable compared to hydrogenation. The most important challenge in organogelation researches is to find the most suitable organogelators. Oleogels are suggested for production of formative fat stocks, nutraceutical encapsulation and pitch, controlled let go of of bioactives, production of creams and cookies, substitution in kernel products and confectionery, minimizing vegetable oil migration in different processed foods, and others. [ 2, 3, 5, 6 ] edible oils naturally exist in solid, semi-solid or fluid express, and this forcible state can determine their application areas in food products. [ 1, 2 ] The physical state of anoint depends on the chain length and saturation level of its fatso acids, curie / trans isomers content and the position of fatso acids in the glycerol. As versatile naked materials, the physical properties of liquid oils have been modified by some technical applications such as hydrogenation, fractionation, interesterification, blend, and crystallization. Although these present technologies are useful, they may have some disadvantages, such as increase in saturated and trans fatso acid content, expensive investment and higher operation price. [ 1, 3, 4 ]

The duplicate measurements within each duplicate of oleogel productions were performed for the samples and the results were represented as mean values with standard deviations. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the multiple comparisons of the means accomplished by Tukey ’ mho screen. statistic analysis was performed with Minitab v.16.1.1. [ 15 ] During the 90 days storage at the two different temperatures, the oxidative stabilities of the samples were monitored by measuring the PV ( Cd 8-53 method acting ). [ 14 ] The wide and small-angle XRD patterns of the oleogels were taken with a Rigaku D-Max Rint 2200 exemplar XRD ( Rigaku Int. Corp, Tokyo, Japan ). The angular scans from 2.0° to 50° ( 2θ ) were performed by 2°/min scan rate. A Cu generator roentgenogram pipe ( λ = 1.54056 Å, 40 kilovolt and 40 massachusetts ) and MDI Jade 7 software ( Materials Data Inc, Livermore, USA ) was used for the datum analysis. The crystal morphology of the oleogels was observed at room temperature with an Olympus BX51 polarized light microscope ( Olympus Optical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan ) equipped with a CCD color video television camera ( Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan ). [ 13 ] The steadiness and stickiness of the oleogels were measured with a Texture Analyzer TA-XT2i ( stable Microsystems, Surrey, UK ) equipped with a custom-made block and 45° conic section acrylic probe. The samples stored at room temperature ( 20°C ) or refrigerator ( 4°C ) were taken out and measured at that temperature to observe the effect of repositing temperature. texture was besides monitored during 90 days storage to observe the effects of storage time. The penetration screen was accomplished by penetrating the probe into 23 mm depth by 3.0 mm/s accelerate, and then pulling the probe out at 10 mm/s speed. The texture parameters were calculated by Texture Exponent v.6.1.1.0 software ( static Microsystems ). [ 12 ] The thermal bicycle technique of Dassanayake et alabama. [ 7 ] was adapted for this analysis. The thermal analysis was performed with a Perkin-Elmer 4000 Series differential scanning calorimeter ( DSC ; Groningen, The Netherlands ). The instrument was calibrated with Indium and Zinc standards. First, the DSC was purged with nitrogen at 50 mL/min run rate. then the oleogel samples were weighed around 5–7 magnesium into aluminum pans and sealed hermetically. The temperature program was heating the samples from room temperature to 140°C by 10°C/min ; then cooling to –20°C by 10°C/min rate and keeping for 3 min at that temperature for entire crystal formation and finally heating again to 100°C by 5°C/min rate. The thermal parameters were calculated by Pyris 1 Manager Software on the musical instrument. The color of the oleogel samples was measured with Minolta CR-400 colorimeter ( Konica Minolta Sensing, Osaka, Japan ). First, the instrument was calibrated with white tile, and then blink reading on an empty looking glass tube was done to set off the effects of pipe. finally, the color reading were accomplished on respective different points of the glass tubes filled with the organogel samples, and the values of L, a*, and b* were recorded. [ 11 ] The method acting of ISO 8292-2 [ 10 ] was followed for the percentage of SFC measurement. The analysis were carried out at 20 and 30°C with a Minispec Bruker NMR Analyzer mq20 ( Bruker Optics, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA ) calibrated with 0, 31, and 73.5 % solid fatness containing criterion solutions. The previously formed oleogel samples were beginning wholly melted in water bathtub ( 90°C ) and kept for 2 hydrogen for isothermal set. then they were taken out from the water bathe to room temperature, and interim chronometer was started. The CFT was recorded when the tubes turned 90° and no flow observed. [ 7 ] The OBC method acting was adapted from Da Pieve et aluminum. [ 9 ] First, 1 milliliter of the melt oleogel sample was put into previously weighed eppendorf tube ( weight a ) and conditioned in refrigerator for 1 h. then the tube was weighed again ( weight boron ). The tubes were centrifuged at 9167 gram for 15 min at room temperature, and turned over onto a filter paper for drain of released anoint. last, the tubes were weighed ( burden speed of light ) again and OBC was calculated by Eq. ( 1 ). ( 1 ) The addition levels of waxes were 3, 7, and 10 % as weight ratio. First HO and each of the SW and CW were placed into beakers and heated in a urine bathroom at 90°C. When the waxes melted wholly, and all are at the like temperature, the waxes were added into the oil and stirred vigorously for 5 minute. then this concoction was poured into aseptic plastic cups ( 150 milliliter ) and glass tubes with caps for subsequent analyses. The oleogels were formed at ambient temperature without any shear effect nightlong. finally, the planned analyses were performed for each sample. For the memory trial, the samples were stored at 20°C in a dark home, and at 4°C in a refrigerator for three months and analyzed sporadically. The oleogel production was repeated twice, and all analyses within each production replicate were at least doubly. In Fig. 1, the pictures of the HO oleogels are shown. Throughout this manuscript, the samples were abbreviated with codes : HO-hazelnut vegetable oil ; SW-sunflower wax ; CW-carnauba wax ; CS-commercial shorten ; HS3, HS7, and HS10-oleogels of HO at concentrations of 3, 7, and 10 % SW ; HC3, HC7, and HC10-oleogels of HO prepared with addition of CW in concentrations of 3, 7, and 10 %. Refined HO ( Çotanak Oil Co., Ordu, Turkey ) was purchased from marketplaces. The fatso acid musical composition of the oil ( % weight ) provided by the producer, as 0.03 % myristic, 5.87 % palmitic, 0.2 % palmitoleic, 2.64 % stearic, 82.7 % oleic, 9.50 % linoleic, 0.07 % linolenic, 0.13 % arachidic, and 0.02 % behenic acids. SW ( 6607L ) was purchased from KahlWax ( Kahl GmbH & Co., Trittau, Germany ). It is a yellow solid shot with soft/characteristic smell, with 0.85–1.05 g/cm 3 density at 20°C, having a melting compass of 74–80°C, acerb value of 2–8 milligram KOH/g, saponification value of 80–96 milligram KOH/g, peroxide rate ( PV ) of 0 mval/kg. It is classified as rid from dangerous chemicals according to Annex I to Directive 67/548/EEC. CW ( 5023 ) was besides purchased from KahlWax ( Kahl GmbH & Co., Trittau, Germany ). It is a yellow to brown upstanding powder/flakes with faint smell, having concentration of 0.99–1.00 g/cm 3 at 20°C, with melting compass of 78–88°C, acid value of 5–15 milligram KOH/g, saponification rate of 80–95 milligram KOH/g. No dangerous materials were acknowledged and the wax was claimed as dependable product .

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Physico-Chemical Properties

The OBC, CFT, SFC and color values ( L, a*, and b* ) of the oleogel samples are shown in table 1. clearly, the vegetable oil bind capacities ( OBC ) of the CW oleogels at 3 and 7 % addition levels were much lower than that of SW oleogels. No stable gels were observed for CW oleogels at 3 % addition level, and the crystal geological formation periods were besides long. The results indicated that the 10 % CW containing oleogel exhibited maximum SFC ( 8.5 % ) at 20°C, whereas at the same temperature CS had 30.4 % SFC. The SFCs measured at 30°C were lower than that measured at 20°C. Co and Marangoni [ 2 ] have indicated that there was no transfer in the SFC of organogels, as one of the main advantages listed for organogelation. This situation is confirmed in this study american samoa good. There was a proportional increase of SFC in the oleogels depending on the summation and saturation levels of the organogelators used. The instrumental color values of the oleogel samples showed similarity for a* and b* values with CS, while the level of brightness ( L value ) was slightly different. The colors and appearances of the oleogels can be visualized from Fig. 1. characterization of Hazelnut Oil Oleogels Prepared with Sunflower and Carnauba Waxes All authors Mustafa Öğütcü Emin

Yılmazhttps://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2014.933352

mesa 1 The oil tie capacity ( OBC ), crystal formation time ( CFT ), solid fatten subject ( SFC ), and semblance values ( L, a*, and b* ) of the oleogel samplesCSVDisplay Table

Thermal Properties

In any plastic fat product, crystallization and mellow behaviors are essential components of its technical properties. [ 1 ] Hence, the thermal properties of the oleogel samples together with HO, SW, and CW are measured with DSC and from the thermograms ( Fig. 2 ) the thermal parameters were calculated by the software and the results are presented in postpone 2. The dissolve temperatures and enthalpies of the SW and CW oleogels were quite like. On the early hand, the melting temperatures of SW containing oleogels were a fiddling lower than that of CW containing oleogels. The melting flower temperatures of the CS was 52.3°C, and among the oleogel samples, 3 % SW hold oleogel had the closest respect ( 58.4°C ) to that of the CS sample. As the floor of add wax increased, the liquescent temperatures and enthalpies besides increased, as expected. [ 2 ] The melting enthalpies of the oleogels were different from that of CS sample distribution. The melting enthalpies increased as the floor of total organogelators enhanced. The melting temperatures of SW and soy anoint organogels were reported to be between 47 and 65°C within 0.5–10 % summation levels. At the same addition range, the heat content change of liquescent was reported between 0.2 and 15 J/g. [ 8 ] Hence, 3–7 % SW containing HO can be suggested as an alternative source for shortening fat stock. CW oleogels had like operation american samoa long as entirely the thermal properties concerned. Dassanayake et aluminum. [ 7 ] reported 84°C liquescent point and 137.6 J/g melting heat content for CW, and we measured 81.04°C melting luff and 182.15 J/g melting heat content for the same wax. The differences can be attributed to the materials generator and honor differences. It was concluded that rice bran wax was better than CW for organogel properties. [ 7 ] similarly, we conclude that SW is better than CW regarding the oleogel properties. portrayal of Hazelnut Oil Oleogels Prepared with Sunflower and Carnauba Waxes All authors Mustafa Öğütcü Emin Yılmazhttps://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2014.933352

table 2 The thermal properties of the oleogel samplesCSVDisplay Table word picture of Hazelnut Oil Oleogels Prepared with Sunflower and Carnauba Waxes All authors Mustafa Öğütcü Emin Yılmazhttps://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2014.933352

FIGURE 2 The DSC thermogram of hazelnut oil ( HO ), carnauba wax wax ( CW ), sunflower wax ( SW ), and the oleogel samples .

Display full size FIGURE 2 The DSC thermogram of hazelnut oil ( HO ), carnauba wax wax ( CW ), sunflower wax ( SW ), and the oleogel samples .

Oxidative Stability

The oxidative stability of the oleogel samples and CS sample were monitored during three months storage at room and refrigerator temperatures by the PV measurements, and the results are shown in Fig. 8. broadly at both storage temperatures for all samples, the increase in the PVs through the storehouse time was minimal. besides, the increase was much less in refrigerator stored samples ( p = 0.001 ). Among all stored oleogel samples, the highest PV ( 0.6 meqgO2/kg ) was measured in 3 % CW containing oleogel stored at 20°C for 90 days. At the lapp temperature ( 20°C ), the PV for CS sample has reached its soap value of 0.5 meqgO2/kg after 90 days. These results indicate that HO oleogels are very stable in terms of oxidation. This might be ascribable to the fatty acid typography ( see materials section ) and higher amounts of tocols and sterols found in HO. [ 19 ] The impression of mineral fortification on oxidative stability of reduced-fat spreads has shown that iron and bull added samples were very susceptible to oxidation, whereas abject level of zinc accession led to acceptable oxidative stability in the spreads developed. [ 20 ] In our learn, there was no antioxidant or any other summation into the oleogels. word picture of Hazelnut Oil Oleogels Prepared with Sunflower and Carnauba Waxes All authors Mustafa

Öğütcü Emin Yılmazhttps://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2014.933352

FIGURE 8 The peroxide values of the oleogel samples ; ( a ) 4°C ( boron ) 20°C .

Display full size FIGURE 8 The peroxide values of the oleogel samples ; ( a ) 4°C ( b-complex vitamin ) 20°C .

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