Guided wave radar technology is highly suited to very difficult level measurement applications. A typical guided wave radar setup will involve a transmitter that is installed on top of a vessel or container and a probe that is attached to the transmitter via a cable.
The radar pulse is confined with the problem and cables, enabling a firm sign to be maintained and accurate measurements to be acquired, even when working in challenging environments .
This method acting is suitable for use in cold environments, steam-filled spaces, or at high pressures, high temperatures, or otherwise harsh conditions. Guided wave radar engineering is besides able to accommodate unlike types of products, including both solids and liquids .

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Principles of Guided Wave Radar Technology
A radar pulse is sent from the vector through the cable or through the probe. The pulsation reflects off the products being measured, returning to the sender. Time of fledge analysis is used to calculate the flush of the product .
When working with lead wave radar engineering, it is significant to consider the insulator constant of the materials. Water-based products will present a very high insulator constant, intend that a strong bespeak is returned to the vector .
Dealing with depleted insulator constants does result in some limitations, however. When working with some plastics or oils, it is prudent to verify insulator of the materials prior to measuring because when working with abject insulator materials, the signal returned is weaker, and it may not be sufficient to properly measure the reflect signal .
ABB offers the LWT300 guided radar series. Introduced in the past year, the LWT300 series utilizes the like platforms as ABB ’ sulfur range of early products such as pressure and temperature transmitters. facility of all these products is aboveboard via the standard software base and apparatus menu .
The LWT300 series uses the same coupling purpose as ABB ’ s former model, the MT5000, but all the other parts have been completely redesigned and redeveloped, including the electronics .
The LWT300 series has an identical look and spirit to ABB ’ s other products and the same streamlined approach to make transitioning from one merchandise to another easy via a common menu layout .
The LWT300 serial is available with aluminum or stainless-steel housing and touch screen or push-button interface options. The heading can be rotated, meaning it can be installed in more places while maintaining flexibility .
Threaded or flanged interfaces are available, american samoa well as a range of different probes. The probes used in the LWT300 series can be manufactured from a roll of different materials, depending on the type of products being measured. Connections are available via cable, rod, segmented rod or coaxial .
There are two particular models available : one for fluent measurements ( LWT310 ) and one for solid measurements ( LWT320 ). Each model offers like specifications and can accommodate environments with temperatures up to 400 °F and pressures up to 200 bars or 2900 PSI .
The instruments can work insulator constants up to 1.4 and offer an update rate of 5 Hz. Accuracy is within 2 mm .
The key difference between the two products is the coupling diameter. The coupling is installed between the sender and the cable or probes. The coupling must be more full-bodied and often larger when working with solids because the pull power applied to cable or probes when working with solids is higher .
Some guided wave radar applications require the use of a flexible cable television with a weight at the conclusion because it is significant to keep the cable straight within the vessel. This flexible cable must often cover farseeing distances. The cable is cut to the length that is required based on the acme of the vessel .
Rods will by and large be made from stainless steel steel, but other types of materials are available. The perch can be continuous or segmented, with 1 meter segments used to construct a perch that is a maximum of 6 m in length. If there are quad constraints at the top of the vessel, segmented rods may provide an easier option in terms of facility .
coaxial probe connections involve the use of a probe contained in a stainless steel steel tube. The signal is confined within the tube, making this method acting more suitable for working with identical demanding applications and products with a insulator constant of less than 2. With the coaxial option, there is no deadzone at the peak of the probe .
When working with a small vessel that should be measured to the identical top, the coaxial probe is frequently the best choice .
Over the years, guided wave radar has become increasingly popular, but it has historically had a reputation for being an expert-level device. ABB ’ mho guided wave radar instruments offer a much more user-friendly know, aiming to address these preconceptions .

The LevelExpert Application

The LWT300 series of instruments is operated via the LevelExpert algorithm. This algorithm prompts the user to provide information on the application that the lead brandish radar will be used within, examines the wave form and automatically detects the correct level .
This approach is herculean and intuitive, and ABB expects that it will make commission guided wave radar instruments accessible to even inexperienced users .
quite than setting technical foul parameters such as doorway, detector derive or filter condition, the drug user is prompted to describe the application itself .
For case, is the guide wave legal document being placed on top of a nozzle ? If therefore, how long is that nozzle ? What are the process conditions ? Is there a buildup ? Is there foam ? Is flashing expected in the application ?
Most users will be mindful of the answers to these questions, many of which are presented as a series of childlike yes/no choices. Experienced users will find this process familiar, but for novice users, LevelExpert will ensure that everything is set up by rights, ensuring accurate measurement from the very start .
After the measurement has been taken, LevelExpert will examine the wave form and qualify the different radar echoes. Users can view the wave form or echo shape on the unit itself or on a connected calculator via a DTM or FDI package .
Because the application looks at and defines all the different echoes, false echoes are avoided, and measurements are generally more accurate. Users have the choice of manually verifying the wave form to check its accuracy, but many users opt not to do this .
If users are looking for more specific data on a particular echo, this can be selected via the application ’ sulfur menu .

Benefits of Guided Wave Radar Applications

The potential consumption of guided wave radar applications via long, remote cable offers a mix of convenience and safety. many applications would involve the electronic capitulum being immediately integrated with the coupling, but this is split in two in the LWT300 series, which positions the probe inside the tank itself .
This allows the principal to be kept at anchor level, meaning there is no need to climb the tank to see it. This is besides ideal when working with potentially hazardous products because the outback cable allows workers to take readings from a dependable distance of up to 60 m .
The coupling, probe and electronic head are connected via a specific tool, ensuring this is tight enough to prevent any moisture from entering the connection. The cable and system are full-bodied adequate to work outside and in internally damp environments.

many applications require eminent accuracy and low temperature drift, both of which are easily accomplishable using guide beckon radar .
temperature roll is an crucial consideration in terms of overall accuracy because accuracy is defined at a ceaseless temperature ( normally room temperature ), meaning there is no guarantee that accuracy will be maintained as temperature changes. If accuracy is critical for an application, the temperature drift should surely be considered .
For case, a identical depleted temperature drift will ensure that accuracy is maintained as ambient temperature potentially changes throughout the day or due to a change in summons temperature. A process could inject steam, heating up the transmitter and potentially conduct to temperature oscillations during that time .
ABB uses a novel means of compensating for temperature drift, performing 15 to 50 times better than other instruments on the marketplace – 0.2 millimeter per 10 °C with a maximum of 2.5 millimeter for the whole temperature crop .
excess applications will besides benefit from a low temperature drift. For example, an application may see two or three guided wave radars reporting the level, triggering an alarm if the flush drift over a given roll between the three units .
If temperature changes do result in drift, not all units will drift the same room and there will be some spread in the measurement. If this spread is besides boastfully, the alarm clock will not trigger
Guided curl radar besides offers a rapid measurement rate. many level measurement applications do not require a fast level measurement rate because the levels involved do not change frequently, but this is critical in some more specialist applications .
The LWT300 series offers a 5 Hz update pace leading to a mistreat reply time of 400 m. This is important in smaller tanks that frequently fill up promptly or in ball-shaped or cylindrical tanks that are wide at the base but narrower at the top .
rapid rates of measurement ensure less opportunity of overfilling, something particularly important in many applications .
Guided wave radar instruments besides allow users to change the probes without having to recalibrate the unit. This feature of speech is beneficial in a number of scenarios ; for example, where users keep a provide of varying duration cables on-site for use with different tanks across assorted settings, or when switching between cable and rod setups or vice versa .
In this case, the exploiter would plainly need to enter the new cable length into the unit. besides, the user can change from a cable to a perch and vice versa. All the heads are calibrated in the factory and will work careless of the type of probe they are used with .

Potential Applications of Guided Wave Radar

Guided wave radar is able to provide authentic, accurate measurements in a wide range of applications, even demanding applications that are capable to vapor, turbulence, flash, limited foam, and some buildup on the probe, american samoa well as changing temperature coerce and insulator .
The LevelExpert software offers functions specifically designed to accommodate changes in insulator constants .
In one square application case, ABB installed guided wave radar on an external chamber as opposed to inside the vessel. This is one of the best solutions in terms of stability and is ideal when there are fluctuations, obstructions or agitations inside the vessel .
Stilling wells and applications using horizontal cylinders can besides benefit from the use of guide wave radar. This application benefits from the use of traditional guided beckon radar instruments or a coaxial probe, the latter being utilitarian when dealing with humble dielectric or retentive measurements .
In either application, false echoes are minimal, response time is rapid, and accuracy is ensured .
One customer based in Canada opted to use the LWT310 in an vegetable oil lotion to measure H2S. The challenge, in this character, involved obtaining dependable level measurements of crude oil stored in a fiberglass tank. The anoint is very low insulator, and there was hindrance from radio randomness close to the facility .
ABB installed the LWT310 and used a 25 foot flexible cable, connecting this via a flange to a flat metal surface. This is very significant to ensure an effective radar pulse launch. The probe was fitted into an external bedroom via a segment gat .
The customer in this model used the LevelExpert frame-up algorithm to complete the installations in-house with no accompaniment required, citing the LTW300 series ’ dependability, affordability and robustness as key factors informing their choice to use these instruments .
Guided wave radar can be used in virtually all industries, and ABB offers a range of unlike applications to ensure dependable, accurate measurements .
In another model, a company in Warsaw, Poland, working in the water system industry, uses an LWT310 to accurately and quickly measurement water system levels with a position to preventing floods. The customer was looking for authentic solutions that did not present delusive echoes, having previously had fake echo issues with supersonic solutions .
This application required the solution to work in a narrow outer space of around 3.6 thousand, along with the option to use excess measurements. This need for excess measurements prompted the customer to use two lead wave radar instruments to help alleviate the gamble of flooding between sections of the burrow .
The customer performed the installations in-house using the LevelExpert algorithm. The commission had to be completed quickly, and since they installed the LTW310s, the customer has been much better equipped to monitor and prevent flood .
Cooling towers are another popular function of the LWT310 instrument, with respective customers using this to measure the water levels in a cool loom system. Cooling towers are outstanding across many industries, including power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants and even food manufacturers .
typical installations are done using a long-distance pipe – around 25 foot in length. cable television probes are coarse, but it is important that the cable does not touch the side of the pipe because this leads to false echoes. The cable is kept in the middle of the pipe using spacers in this scenario .
other applications may see the LWT300 series replacing bubblers or other non-contact devices because these applications are demanding, potentially dealing with foam, turbulence, or sludge in some cases .

Summary

One of the chief advantages of guided wave radar is its eminent accuracy of up to 2 mm – much higher than any other instrument available on the market. authentic measurement is potential even in harsh conditions, and because the pulse is confined by the probe and the probe touches the fabric, a draw of department of energy is available to analyze the signal .
The LevelExpert algorithm offers a new and improved means of interacting with the device, making this engineering much more accessible to anyone who knows a set more about their lotion than they do about how the device performs.


This data has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by ABB Measurement & Analytics – analytic measurement Products .
For more information on this source, please visit ABB Measurement & Analytics – analytic measurement Products .

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