Instant messaging service by Apple
not to be confused with Messages ( Apple )
iMessage is an moment message service developed by Apple Inc. and launched in 2011. iMessage functions entirely on Apple platforms : macOS, io, iPadOS, and watchOS.

congress of racial equality features of iMessage, available on all supported platforms, include sending textbook messages, images, videos, and documents ; getting pitch and read statuses ( read receipts ) ; and end-to-end encoding so only the transmitter and recipient – no one else, including Apple itself – can read the messages. The serve besides allows sending location data and stickers. On io and iPadOS, third-party developers can extend iMessage capabilities with custom extensions, an example being quick sharing of recently played songs. Launched on io in 2011, [ 1 ] iMessage arrived on macOS ( then called OS X ) in 2012. [ 2 ] In 2020, Apple announced an wholly redesign interpretation of the macOS Messages app which adds some of the features previously unavailable on the Mac, including location communion and message effects .

history [edit ]

iMessage was announced by Scott Forstall at the WWDC 2011 keynote on June 6, 2011. A interpretation of the Messages app for io with support for iMessage was included in the io 5 update on October 12, 2011. On February 16, 2012, Apple announced that a new Messages app replacing iChat would be function of OS X Mountain Lion. [ 2 ] Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012. On October 23, 2012, Apple CEO, Tim Cook announced that Apple device users have sent 300 billion messages using iMessage and that Apple delivers an average of 28,000 messages per second. [ 3 ] In February 2016, Eddy Cue announced that the number of iMessages sent per second had grown to 200,000. [ 4 ] In May 2014, a lawsuit was filed against Apple over an issue that, if a exploiter substitution from an Apple device to a non-Apple device, messages being delivered to them through iMessage would not reach their destination. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] In November 2014 Apple addressed this problem by providing instructions and an on-line tool to deregister iMessage. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] A federal court dismissed the lawsuit in Apple ‘s favor. [ 9 ] On March 21, 2016, a group of researchers from Johns Hopkins University published a report in which they demonstrated that an attacker in possession of iMessage ciphertexts could potentially decrypt photos and videos that had been sent via the service. The researchers published their findings after the vulnerability had been patched by Apple. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] On June 13, 2016, Apple announced the summation of Apps to iMessage overhaul, accessible via the Messages apps. Apps can create and share message, add stickers, make payments, and more within iMessage conversations without having to switch to standalone apps. One could develop standalone iMessage apps or an extension to existing io apps. Publishers can besides create standalone stickers apps without writing any code. [ 12 ] According to Sensor Tower, as of March 2017 the iMessage App Store features closely 5,000 Message-enabled apps. [ 13 ] At the WWDC 2020 tonic on June 22, 2020, Apple previewed the next version of its macOS manoeuver system, planned for liberation in late 2020. big Sur ships with a redesign adaptation of Messages with features previously available only on io devices, such as message effects, memojis, stickers and placement sharing .

Features [edit ]

A blank new message created with the Messages application running on io 15 on an iPhone. When the sender is sending an iMessage, the “ Send ” button will appear aristocratic notifying the message that is about to be sent is an iMessage alternatively of an SMS. iMessage allows users to send textbook, documents, photos, videos, reach information, and group messages over the Internet to early io or macOS users. iMessage is an alternate to the SMS and MMS messaging for most users with devices running io 5 or late. The “ Send as SMS ” setting under Messages will cause the message to be sent via SMS if the sender does not have an active Internet connection. If the recipient has no Internet connection, the message should be stored on a server until a connection is restored. iMessage is accessible through the Messages app on an iPhone, iPad or iPod touch running io 5 or by and by, or on a Mac running OS X Mountain Lion or late. Owners of these devices can register one or more electronic mail addresses with Apple. additionally, iPhone owners can register their earphone numbers with Apple, provided their carrier is supported. When a message is sent to a mobile number, Messages will check with Apple if the mobile number is set up for iMessage. If it is not, the message will seamlessly transition from iMessage to SMS. [ 14 ] In Messages, the exploiter ‘s sent communication is aligned to the mighty, with replies from early people on the leftover. A user can see if the early iMessage user is typing a message. A pale gray ellipsis appears in the text ripple of the early user when a answer is started. It is besides possible to start a conversation on one io device and continue it on another. [ 14 ] On iPhones, greens buttons and text bubbles indicate SMS-based communication ; on all io devices, blue buttons and text bubbles indicate iMessage communication. All iMessages are encrypted and can be tracked using delivery receipts. [ 15 ] If the recipient role enables Read Receipts, the sender will be able to see when the recipient has read the message. iMessage besides allows users to set up chats with more than two people—a “ group chat ”. With the establish of io 10, users can send messages accompanied by a range of “ bubble ” or “ shield ” effects. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] By holding down the transport button with force, the range of effects is surfaced for users to select an effect to be sent to the receiver. With the launches of io 14 and macOS 11 Big Sur, users gain a countless of features such as the ability to pin individual conversations, mention other users, set an trope for group conversations, and send inline replies. additionally, more of the features from the Messages app on io and iPadOS were ported over to their macOS counterpart. [ 18 ] With the launch of io 15.2, Apple added automated blur of photos containing explicit images that are sent to underage users. The feature relies on scanning the photograph on the device and can optionally be set to alert the underage user ‘s parents if denotative substantial is received. The have was in the first place launched only for the US with a later expansion to the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The feature remains regionally restricted for the rest of the universe. [ 19 ] [ 20 ]

engineering [edit ]

The iMessage protocol is based on the Apple Push Notification overhaul ( APNs ) —a proprietorship, binary protocol. [ 21 ] It sets up a Keep-Alive connection with the Apple servers. Every connection has its own alone code, which acts as an identifier for the route that should be used to send a message to a particular device. The connection is encrypted with TLS using a client-side certificate, that is requested by the device on the activation of iMessage .

Platforms [edit ]

iMessage is only available on the Apple operating systems, such as io, iPadOS, macOS, and watchOS. Unlike some other messaging apps, it does not have compatibility for Android or Microsoft Windows, and does not have any web access/interface. This means iMessage must be accessed using the app on a device using an Apple operate organization.

unofficial platforms [edit ]

iMessage is only officially supported on Apple devices, but many apps exist that ahead iMessages to devices that do n’t run Apple ‘s operate system. The iMessage forwarding apps achieve this by creating an iMessage server on an io or macOS device that forwards the messages to a client on any other device, including Android, Windows, and Linux machines. The apps that use an io device as a server require the device to be jailbroken. On November 23, 2012, Beast Soft released the first adaptation of their Remote Messages break fine-tune for io 5. [ 22 ] Remote Messages created an iMessage and SMS server on the io device that could be accessed by any other internet enabled device through a web app. Remote Messages had the ability to send any attachments from the node device, angstrom well as sending photograph from the io server device through the vane app. Beast Soft would continue to update Remote Messages through October 2015, supporting all io versions from io 5 through io 9. [ 23 ] On May 3, 2016, an mugwump open-source project named “ PieMessage ” was announced by app developer Eric Chee, [ 24 ] consist of code for OS X that communicates with iMessage and connects to an Android client, allowing the Android node to send and receive messages. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] On October 16, 2017, following inactiveness from Beast Soft angstrom well as a monetary amplitude [ 27 ] requesting an iMessage tweak compatible with io 10, SparkDev released AirMessage. [ 28 ] AirMessage was similar to Remote Messages in that the customer was accessed through a network app, however it was more limit in features and did not support sending attachments like Remote Messages previously had. AirMessage besides did not add support for any of the new iMessage features of io 10, such as tapback reactions or screen effects. AirMessage was updated through June 2020, ending with documentation for io 10 through io 13. [ 29 ] On December 10, 2017, 16-year-old developer Roman Scott released weMessage, the first publicly available Android app that forwarded iMessages from a macOS server device to an Android node. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] Scott released two hearty updates to weMessage, the first of which added iMessage shield effects and tease fixes [ 32 ] and the second base of which added SMS and MMS support, ampere well as fixes for contact synchronize and server management. [ 33 ] On November 11, 2018, citing his inability to spend more time on the project, Scott open-sourced weMessage. [ 34 ] On February 22, 2019 [ 35 ] independent developer Cole Feuer released the AirMessage app for Android. [ 36 ] Feuer ‘s AirMessage coincidentally shares a name with SparkDev ‘s io pinch, but AirMessage for Android is not in any way related to the AirMessage break pluck. AirMessage for Android includes code for a server running on OS X Yosemite and higher, and an Android customer that runs on Android 6 and higher that can send and receive iMessages. [ 37 ] Like weMessage, AirMessage has subscribe for display, but not air, screen effects, and AirMessage besides has the ability to display tapback messages and send tapback notifications. In January 2020, Feuer released an update that added SMS and MMS capabilities, a well as world wide web connect previews, a photograph gallery viewer, and the ability to send a localization message. [ 38 ] On August 15, 2020, Ian Welker released SMServer as a release and open-source io break fine-tune for io 13 that uses a web app node. [ 39 ] Welker maintains an API on his GitHub page with extensive documentation on how to use the IMCore and ChatKit libraries. [ 40 ] SMServer was the first app to support io 14 and macOS Big Sur features of iMessage, such as group chat photos and displaying pin conversations. It was besides the first app to support outback send of tapback messages and submit tune text. On August 21, 2020, Eric Rabil released a video showcasing his approaching server and vane app, MyMessage. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] MyMessage was the first app to showcase confirm for sending tapback messages and receiving digital allude and handwritten messages, which Rabil claimed to have achieved by writing code that directly communicated with the iMessage avail preferably than using AppleScript and reading the database. [ 43 ] MyMessage is the alone app to run its waiter on both macOS and io, but as of February 2021, merely the server part of MyMessage has been released, with the network app frontend still receiving stability development. From August 2020 through October 2020, a barren and open-source project called BlueBubbles [ 44 ] was publicly released. BlueBubbles was built to address some of the difficulties and limitations of AirMessage for Android, such as the fact that AirMessage was closed source, required larboard forward, and had no native apps for operating systems such as Windows or Linux. BlueBubbles requires a waiter running MacOS High Sierra or higher, and like AirMessage, it has some limitations on MacOS Big Sur. In November and December 2020, BlueBubbles added the ability to send and receive typing indicators from the Android app, a well as the ability to send read receipts and tapback messages. ( both on Android ) [ 45 ] On January 29, 2021, Aziz Hasanain released a release and open-source break pluck called WebMessage for io 12 through io 14. [ 46 ] Hasanain used Welker ‘s documentation of the IMCore and ChatKit libraries to assist his development of WebMessage, [ 47 ] which is the beginning break pinch to use a download app as the client rather of a web app .

reception [edit ]

On November 12, 2012, Chetan Sharma, a technology and strategy consult firm, published the US Mobile Data Market Update Q3 2012, noting the decline of text message in the United States, and suggested the decline may be attributed to Americans using alternative free messaging services such as iMessage. [ 48 ] In 2017, Google announced they would compete with iMessage with their own messaging service, Android Messaging. [ 49 ]

security and privacy [edit ]

On November 4, 2014, the Electronic Frontier Foundation ( EFF ) listed iMessage on its “ Secure Messaging Scorecard ”, giving it a grudge of 5 out of 7 points. It received points for having communications encrypted in transit, having communications encrypted with keys the supplier does n’t have access to ( throughout encoding ), having past communications secure if the keys are stolen ( forward privacy ), having their security designs well-documented, and having a recent independent security audit. It missed points because users can not verify contacts ‘ identities and because the reservoir code is not unfold to independent follow-up. [ 50 ] In September 2015, Matthew Green noted that, because iMessage does not display key fingerprints for out-of-band confirmation, users are unable to verify that a man-in-the-middle attack has not occurred. The post besides noted that iMessage uses RSA key exchange. This means that, as opposed to what EFF ‘s card claims, iMessage does not feature forward privacy. [ 51 ] On August 7, 2019, researchers from Project Zero presented 6 “ interaction-less ” exploits in iMessage that could be used to take over control of a exploiter ‘s device. [ 52 ] These six exploits have been fixed in io 12.4, released on July 22, 2019, however there are still some undisclosed exploits which will be patched in a future update. [ 53 ] Project Pegasus revelations in July 2021 found the software used iMessage exploits .

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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