Species of flowering plant in the family Lecythidaceae

not to be confused with the brazilwood tree

The Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa ) is a south american tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and it is besides the name of the corner ‘s commercially harvested comestible seeds. It is one of the largest and longest-lived trees in the Amazon rain forest. The fruit and its nutshell – containing the comestible Brazil en – are relatively large, possibly weighing american samoa much as 2 kilogram ( 4 pound 7 oz ) in total burden. As food, Brazil nuts are luminary for divers message of micronutrients, particularly a high come of selenium. The wood of the Brazil en tree is prized for its quality in carpentry, flooring, and clayey construction. [ 1 ]

common names.

Brazil en seeds in shell Scientific American Supplement, No. 598, June 18, 1887 depiction of the Brazil crackpot in, No. 598, June 18, 1887 In diverse countries of South America, Brazil nuts are called castañas de Brasil or nuez de Brasil ( spanish ). [ 1 ] In Brazil, they are more normally called “ castanha-do-pará “ ( meaning “ chestnuts from Pará “ in Portuguese ), with other names used in outside and/or small localities. [ 1 ] In North America, a early as 1896, Brazil nuts were sometimes known by the slang term “ nigger toes ”, [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] a coarseness that gradually fell out of use as the racial slur became socially impossible. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

taxonomy.

The Brazil nut family, the Lecythidaceae, is in the order Ericales, as are other well-known plants such as blueberries, cranberries, marmalade tree, gutta-percha, tea, phlox, and persimmons. The corner is the lone species in the monotypic genus Bertholletia, [ 1 ] named after french chemist Claude Louis Berthollet. [ 7 ]

description.

Tree outgrowth The Brazil addict is a big tree, reaching 50 megabyte ( 160 foot ) grandiloquent and with a torso 1 to 2 meter ( 3 foot 3 in to 6 ft 7 in ) in diameter, making it among the largest of trees in the Amazon rain forest. It may live for 500 years or more, and can often reach a thousand years of senesce. [ 8 ] The stem is straight and normally without branches for well over half the tree ‘s acme, with a big, emergent crown of long branches above the surrounding canopy of early trees. The bark is grey and smooth. The leaves are dry-season deciduous, alternate, simple, integral or crenate, oblong, 20–35 curium ( 8–14 in ) long, and 10–15 curium ( 4–6 in ) wide. The flowers are little, green-white, in panicles 5–10 curium ( 2–4 in ) long ; each flower has a two-parted, deciduous calyx, six inadequate cream-colored petals, and numerous stamens united into a across-the-board, hood-shaped mass. [ citation needed ]

range.

The Brazil en is native to the Guianas, Venezuela, Brazil, easterly Colombia, easterly Peru, and eastern Bolivia. It occurs ampere scatter trees in big forests on the banks of the Amazon River, Rio Negro, Tapajós, and the Orinoco. As a result, they can be found outside production areas, in the backyards of homes and near roads and streets in the Northern and Northeastern Brazil. [ citation needed ] The fruit is heavy and rigid ; when the fruits fall, they pose a good terror to vehicles and people passing under the tree .

reproduction.

A newly trimmed Brazil testis fruit Brazil nut trees produce yield about entirely in pristine forests, as interrupt forests lack the large-bodied bees of the genus Bombus, Centris, Epicharis, Eulaema, and Xylocopa, which are the only ones capable of pollinating the tree ‘s flowers, with different bee genus being the elementary pollinators in different areas, and different times of year. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Brazil nuts have been harvested from plantations, but production is abject and is presently not economically viable. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] The yield takes 14 months to mature after pollination of the flowers. The fruit itself is a large capsule 10–15 centimeter ( 4–6 in ) in diameter, resembling a coconut stone in size and weighing up to 2 kg ( 4 pound 7 oz ). It has a hard, woody shell 8–12 millimeter ( 3⁄8–1⁄2 in ) thick, which contains eight to 24 wedge-shaped seeds 4–5 curium ( 1+5⁄8–2 in ) long ( the “ Brazil nuts ” ) packed like the segments of an orange, but not limited to one lock of segments. Up to three whorls can be stacked onto each early, with the polar ends of the segments of the center lock nestling into the upper and lower coil ( see illustration above ). The condensation contains a belittled hole at one end, which enables large rodents like the agouti to gnaw it open. [ 15 ] They then eat some of the seeds inside while burying others for late manipulation ; some of these are able to germinate into newfangled Brazil nut trees. [ 15 ] Most of the seeds are “ planted ” by the agouti in caches during moisture season, [ 15 ] and the young saplings may have to wait years, in a state of quiescence, for a tree to fall and sunlight to reach it, when it starts growing again. Capuchin monkeys have been reported to open Brazil nuts using a stone as an anvil .

company and culture.

In Brazil, cutting down a Brazil nut tree ( typically with the intent of harvesting baseball bat and Brazil nuts ) is illegal, unless done with previous authority from the brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources. [ 16 ] [ 17 ]

product.

Brazil nut production – 2019
Country (tonnes)
 Brazil 32,905
 Bolivia 31,146
 Peru 6,205
World 70,256
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[18]

In 2019, ball-shaped production of Brazil nuts ( in shells ) was 78,256 tonnes, most of which derive from wild harvests in tropical forests, specially the Amazon regions of Brazil and Bolivia which produced 91 % of the universe entire ( mesa ) .

environmental effects of harvesting.

Since most of the production for international craft is harvested in the hazardous, [ 19 ] [ 20 ] the business musical arrangement has been advanced as a model for generating income from a tropical forest without destroying it. [ 19 ] The nuts are most often gathered by migrant workers known as castañeros ( in Spanish ) or castanheiros ( in Portuguese ). [ 19 ] Logging is a significant menace to the sustainability of the Brazil nut-harvesting industry. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] psychoanalysis of tree ages in areas that are harvested shows that moderate and intense gather takes therefore many seeds that not enough are left to replace older trees as they die. [ 20 ] Sites with abstemious gathering activities had many young trees, while sites with intense gather practices had about none. [ 21 ]

European Union consequence regulation.

In 2003, the European Union imposed rigorous regulations on the import of Brazilian-harvested Brazil nuts in their shells, as the shells are considered to contain insecure levels of aflatoxins, a potential campaign of liver cancer. [ 22 ]

nutrition and human pulmonary tuberculosis.

Brazil nuts after beat removal Brazil nuts contain 14 % protein, 12 % carbohydrate, and 66 % fat by burden ; 85 % of their calories come from fatty, and a 100-gram ( 3+1⁄2-ounce ) amount provides 2,740 kilojoules ( 656 kilocalories ) of food energy. [ 23 ] The adipose tissue components are 23 % saturated, 38 % monounsaturated, and 32 % polyunsaturated. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Due to their high polyunsaturated fat content, primarily omega-6 fatty acid fatso acids, shelled Brazil nuts may quickly become sour. nutritionally, Brazil nuts are a full-bodied informant ( 20 % or more of the Daily Value, DV ) of dietary roughage ( 30 % DV ) and versatile vitamins and dietary minerals. A 100 thousand ( 3+1⁄2 oz ) sum ( 75 % of one cup ) of Brazil nuts contains rich message of vitamin b1 ( 54 % DV ), vitamin E ( 38 % DV ), magnesium ( 106 % DV ), morning star ( 104 % DV ), manganese ( 57 % DV ), and zinc ( 43 % DV ). Brazil nuts are possibly the richest dietary reservoir of selenium, with a 28 gigabyte ( 1 oz ) serve of six nuts supplying 774 % DV. [ 23 ] This is 10 times the adult U.S. Recommended dietary Allowance, more even than the adequate Upper Intake Level, although the measure of selenium within batches of crackpot varies greatly. [ 25 ] A 200 grams bag of Brazil nuts from the supermarket has a selenium contentedness of around 20,000 micrograms. That is about 300 times the sum that the german Nutrition Society ( GNS ) recommends for healthy adults ( 70 micrograms per day for men, 60 micrograms per day for women ). [ 26 ] The most coarse signs of a chronical overdose are hair and breeze through personnel casualty or brittleness. [ 27 ] The high selenium content is used as a biomarker in studies of selenium consumption and insufficiency. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] Consumption of just one Brazil nut per day over 8 weeks was sufficient to restore selenium blood levels and increase HDL ( good ) cholesterol in corpulent women. [ 29 ] The selenium which is contained in Brazil nuts comes in organic compounds, chiefly in the form of selenomethionine. [ 30 ] The body confuses this form of selenium with the protein element methionine. [ 31 ] That means that it incorporates the constituent compound uncontrollably into proteins that should contain sulfur. [ 32 ] A part of the selenium is regenerated former but does occur as a function of protein metamorphosis and not as needed. [ 32 ] alternatively of having the incontrovertible effects, the regular consumption of Brazil nuts can have negative effects .

Phytochemicals.

The shells of Brazil nuts contain high levels of aflatoxins, which are produced by molds, [ 33 ] and can cause liver-colored price, including possible cancer, if consumed. [ 22 ] Aflatoxin levels have been found in Brazil nuts during inspections that were far higher than the limits set by the EU. [ 34 ] The nuts contain belittled amounts of radium, a radioactive component, with a kilogram of nuts containing an activity between 40 and 260 becquerels ( 1 and 7 nanocuries ). This is about 1000 times higher than in respective other common foods. According to Oak Ridge Associated Universities, elevated levels of radium in the dirty does not directly cause the concentration of radium, but “ the identical extensive root system of the tree ” can concentrate naturally occurring radioactive material, when portray in the territory. [ 35 ] The substantial must still be present in the soil in arrange to concentrate in the trees. [ 36 ] Brazil nuts besides contain barium, a metallic element with a chemical behavior quite alike to radium, [ 37 ] which can have toxic effects, such as weakness, vomiting or diarrhea, after designed or accidental consumption. [ 38 ]

Uses.

oil.

Brazil nut oil Brazil nut anoint contains 75 % unsaturated fatso acids composed chiefly of oleic and linoleic acids, vitamin a well as the phytosterol, beta-sitosterol, [ 39 ] and fat-soluble vitamin E. [ 40 ] The following table presents the typography of fatso acids in Brazil crackpot all-important anoint : [ 23 ]

forest.

Castanheira) A Brazil testis corner ( The lumber from Brazil nut trees ( not to be confused with Brazilwood ) is of excellent timbre, having divers uses from flooring to heavy construction. [ 1 ] Logging the trees is prohibited by law in all three producing countries ( Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru ). illegal extraction of timbre and country clearances present continuing threats. [ 41 ]

other uses.

A carve Brazil testis fruit Brazil nut oil is used as a lubricant in clocks, in the fabricate of paint, and in the cosmetics industry. [ 42 ] Because of its unfeelingness, the Brazil nutshell is much pulverized and used as an harsh to polish materials such as metals and ceramics, in the same way jeweler ‘s rouge is used .

See besides.

References.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.