Genus of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae

Hosta (, [ 5 ] syn. Funkia ) is a genus of plants normally known as hostas, plantain lilies and occasionally by the japanese name gibōshi. Hostas are widely cultivated as shade-tolerant foliation plants. The genus is presently placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae, [ 6 ] and is native to northeast Asia ( China, Japan, Korea, and the Russian Far East ). [ 2 ] Like many “ lilioid monocots “, the genus was once classified in the Liliaceae. The genus was named by austrian botanist Leopold Trattinnick in 1812, [ 7 ] in honor of the austrian botanist Nicholas Thomas Host. [ 8 ] In 1817, the generic name Funkia was used by german botanist Kurt Sprengel in honor of Heinrich Christian Funck, a collector of ferns and alpines ; [ 9 ] this was late used as a common diagnose and can be found in some older literature .

description.

Hostas are herbaceous perennial plants, growing from rhizomes or stolons, [ 10 ] with broad lanceolate or ovate leaves varying wide in size by species from 1–18 in ( 3–45 centimeter ) long and 0.75–12 in ( 2–30 curium ) broad. The smallest varieties are called miniatures. variation among the numerous cultivars is even greater, with clumps ranging from less than four in ( 10 centimeter ) across and three in ( 8 curium ) high to more than six foot ( 200 curium ) across and four foot ( 130 centimeter ) high. Leaf color in wilderness species is typically green, although some species ( for example, H. sieboldiana ) are known for a glaucous bendable flick coating that gives a blue appearance to the leaf. Some species have a glaucous egg white coating covering the bottom of the leaves. natural mutations of native species are known with yellow-green ( “ gold ” ) colored leaves or with leaf variegation ( either white/cream or yellow edges or centers ). Variegated plants very frequently give lift to sports that are the result of the reshuffle of cellular telephone layers during bud formation, producing foliation with mix paint sections. In seedling diversification is by and large maternally derived by chloroplast transfer and is not a genetically inheritable trait.

The flowers of hosta are produced on upright scapes that are woody and remain on the plant throughout winter, they are broadly taller than the leaf pitcher, and end in terminal racemes. [ 11 ] The individual flowers are normally cernuous, 0.75–2 in ( 2–5 curium ) long, with six tepals, [ 12 ] white, lavender, or purple in color and normally scentless. The only strongly fragrant species is Hosta plantaginea, which has white flowers improving to four in ( 10 curium ) farseeing ; it is besides unusual in that the flowers open in the flush and close by morning. This species blooms in former summer and is sometimes known as “ August Lily ” .

taxonomy.

Taxonomists differ on the number of Hosta species ; there may be ampere many as 45. [ 13 ] Accordingly, the list of species given here may be taken loosely. The genus may be broadly divided into three subgenus. Interspecific hybridization occurs since all the species have the like chromosome act ( 2n = 2x = 60 ) ; except H. ventricosa which is a natural tetraploid that sets seed through apomixis. many cultivated hostas once described as species have been reduced to cultivars ; these frequently have their names conserved, and retain Latinized names which resemble species names ( for example, Hosta ‘Fortunei ‘ ). bear species [ 2 ] as of July 2021 :

accept hybrids.

cultivation.

hosta Hostas are wide cultivated, being particularly utilitarian in the garden as shade-tolerant plants whose strike foliation provides a focal target. The plants are durable perennials that are winter hardy in USDA Zones 3 to 8 and recommended for heat zones 8 to 1. [ 14 ] Though Hosta plantaginea originates in China, most of the species that provide the mod plants were introduced from Japan to Europe by Philipp Franz von Siebold in the mid-19th hundred originating from shady locations with more moisture than they are generally cultivated. [ 15 ] Newer species have been discovered on the korean peninsula a good. Hybridization within and among species and cultivars has produced numerous cultivars, with over 6,100 file and diagnose varieties, and possibly as many more that are not however registered with the american Hosta Society. Cultivars with golden- or white- varicolored leaves are specially prized. [ citation needed ] Popular cultivars include ‘Francee ‘ ( park leaves with white edges ), ‘Gold Standard ‘ ( jaundiced leaves with green edges, discovered by Pauline Banyai ) ‘ Undulata ‘ ( fleeceable leaves with white centers ), ‘June ‘ ( bluish green leaves with creamy centers ), and ‘Sum and Substance ‘ ( a huge plant with chartreuse-yellow leaves ). Newer, fragrant cultivars such as ‘Guacamole ‘ are besides democratic. The american Hosta Society [ 16 ] and the british Hosta and Hemerocallis Society [ 17 ] defend Hosta display gardens, much within botanical gardens. Hostas are frequently exhibited at major shows such as the Chelsea Flower Show .

Cultivars.

The postdate is a list of cultivars that have gained the Royal Horticultural Society ‘s Award of Garden Merit .

toxicity.

While normally grown for cosmetic purposes, all species of hosta are comestible, and are grown as vegetables in some asian cultures. [ 55 ] however, hostas may be toxic to dogs, cats, and horses if consumed in boastfully quantities because some contain saponins. [ 56 ] Symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea. [ 57 ]

Pests and diseases.

Hosta with virus ten. Hosta leaves and stems are eaten by deer, rabbits, slugs and snails, and the roots and rhizomes are eaten by voles, all of these can cause extensive damage to collections in gardens. Some varieties seem more immune to slug wrong, which is more prevailing belated in the growing temper, than others. worm pests include vine weevils and cutworms. [ 58 ] Foliar nematodes, which leave streaks of dead weave between veins, have become an increasing problem where pesticide use has decreased. [ citation needed ] A potexvirus called ‘ Hosta Virus X ‘ was first identified in Minnesota, USA in 1996. Plants that are infected are destroyed to prevent its outspread as the disease can be transmitted from plant to plant by contaminated sap. Symptoms include dark green “ ink shed blood ” marks in the veins of yellow-colored leaves, and/or weave collapse between veins. It can take years for symptoms to show, so asymptomatic plants in infect batches should besides be considered infect. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] other virus that infect Hosta include : Tomato Ringspot Virus, Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus, Tobacco Rattle Virus, Cucumber Mosaic Virus and respective unidentified viruses. [ 61 ] Fungal diseases that affect Hosta include : peak bunk caused by Fusarium hostae. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] It causes stunting and late emergence of the plants, leaf chlorosis, browning and necrosis .

References.

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