detection techniques and specific systems with measure Technological Readiness Levels ( TRLs ) are described by both capabilities and characteristics. A list of detection techniques and systems ‘ capabilities include :
Reading: Counter-IED equipment – Wikipedia
- detection rate of explosives and/or explosive precursor components
- the false positive rate
- the effective range
- the detection depths in various soils
- foliage penetration capability
- type of explosive and/or explosive precursor component that the system is capable of detecting (metal, non-metal, radio controlled, etc.)
- impacts of different types of weather
- processing time
- day/night capability
A description of the characteristics includes :
- approximate cost
- mean time to repair (MTTR)
- availability of components
- intellectual property issues
besides of concern are any hazard identifications, the impact of each system and/or technique on DOTMLPF-P, and acquisition recommendations .
Talon : The TALON transmits in color, black and flannel, infrared, and/or nox vision to its operator, who may be up to 1,000 thousand away. It can run off lithium-ion batteries for a maximal of 7 days on standby independently before needing recharge. It has an 8.5 hour battery life at normal operating speeds, 2 standard lead batteries providing 2 hours each and 1 optional Lithium Ion providing an extra 4.5 hours. It weighs less than 100 pound ( 45 kilogram ) or 60 pound ( 27 kilogram ) for the Reconnaissance adaptation. Its cargo bay accommodates a diverseness of detector payloads. The automaton is controlled through a bipartite radio or a fiber-optic link from a portable or clothing Operator Control Unit ( OCU ) that provides continuous data and television feedback for accurate fomite placement. The ( IED/EOD ) TALON Carries sensors and a automatic manipulator, which is used by the U.S. Military for explosive munition disposal and disarming improvise explosive devices. Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle (SUGV) : SUGVs are lightweight, rugged, specialize systems suitable for military applications in clog urban settings to give users the ability to see around corners and into close spaces. Packbot : The PackBot is a serial of military robots by iRobot. Throwbots : Throwbots ( from “ throwable automaton ” ) are rugged, highly portable, and instantaneously and easily deployable reconnaissance robots .
- US Navy 090512-N-2013O-013 A Mark II Talon automaton from explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit 5, Det. Japan, is used to inspect a fishy box during a storm protection-anti-terrorism educate exercise
- Bomb disposal robot “ tEODor ” of the german Bundeswehr destroying an IED dummy
- Dragon Runner automaton on exert with the british Army in 2012
- Wheelbarrow automaton on the streets of Northern Ireland in 1978
Soldier worn protection.
Body Armor : Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines have a large categorization of clothing security against the effects of blasts and shrapnel. There have been many advancements made in ergonomics, blast insubordinate material and infection prevention over the last match decades. presently there are many options available for unhorse troops to protect them from all types of danger. Below are a few of the presently fielded systems and what is to come. E-SAPI/X-SAPI ballistic plates : armored plates ( of a determine and curvature to be placed against the body ) that provide protective covering from explosively-formed projectiles. Pelvic Protection System : To reduce casualties and minimize damage to vital areas of the body the U.S. Army teamed with early organizations and the diligence to develop and quickly sphere the Pelvic Protective System. The system is presently composed of two layers, an inner layer ( underwear ) and outer layer ( ballistic protection ) [ 1 ]
Armored/Mine-Resistant and Counter-IED Vehicles.
MRAP ( Cougar discrepancy ) being blast screen
Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles.
The MRAP ( Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles ) program was prompted by U.S. deaths in Iraq. [ 2 ] These vehicles are designed specifically to withstand improvise explosive device ( IED ) attacks and ambushes. american samoa recently as 2007, the U.S. military has ordered the production of about 10,000 MRAPs at a cost of over $ 500,000 each, and planned to order more MRAPs. presently there are many different variants produced by respective different manufacturers. [ 3 ] Similar vehicles have been built and are in active service with military, police and individual sector security companies worldwide. .
Modified construction equipment.
The Israel Defense Forces Combat Engineering Corps uses an armored translation of the Caterpillar D9, called IDF Caterpillar D9 “Doobi”, to clear paths and functional terrain from landmines and a versatile IEDs. The heavy armor and durable construction of the IDF D9 enable it to withstand very heavy “ belly charges ” ( IEDs weighing more than 100 kg planted underground to hit the hull of an armored fight vehicle ) which are capable of destroying main battle tanks. The IDF besides have a unmanned translation of the D9N ( called “ Raam HaShachar ”, “ dawn big h ” in Hebrew ) and the D9T ( called “ Panda ” ) to clear IEDs in identical dangerous environments. The United States Army uses an armor adaptation of the Caterpillar D7 to clear landmines. A distant version of the D7 exists .
electronic countermeasures ( jammers, ECM ).
Duke V3 Counter Radio-controlled Electronic Warfare jamming system Duke Version 3 Vehicle mounted CREW system : “ Duke V3 ”., manufactured by SRCTec, Inc., is a buffet radio-controlled improvise explosive device ( RCIED ) electronic war ( CREW ) arrangement that was developed to provide U.S. forces critical, life-saving protection against a broad range of threats. It is a field deployable system that was designed to have minimal size, weight and office requirements while providing simple operation and optimum performance in ordering to provide storm protective covering against radio-controlled IEDs. CREW Duke V3 consists of a chief unit known as the CREW Duke V2 and a secondary unit that features advance electronic war subsystems to counter emerging promote RCIED technologies. Advanced EW components and techniques are implemented to combat complex threat infrastructures in order to provide a utmost protection radius while minimizing the overall system cost and prime power consumption requirements .
CVRJ CREW Vehicle Receiver Jammer CVRJ (CREW Vehicle Receiver Jammer) U.S. Marines : [ 4 ] The primary coil aim of the CVRJ arrangement is to defeat existing Radio Frequency ( RF ) threats and newly identified Hard-to-Kill RF threats. The CVRJ system accomplishes its elementary mission by jamming each threat ‘s impart RF signals. The secondary purpose of the CVRJ system is to add the capability to combine multiple internal RF signals and external RF inputs from other systems, and serve as the conduit for transmitting those RF signals while maintaining system interoperability. It accomplishes both missions via 15 wave form programmable RF channels. The system is software controlled to meet specific threats. Indicators on the CVRJ front panel and Remote Control Unit ( RCU ) allow the hustler to observe system health and diagnostic messages. Built-In-Test ( BIT ) routines run during system low-level formatting and operation that notify the hustler of system faults by illuminating indicators referred to as “ annunciators ” and by displaying text messages on the RCU display. The system is highly automated which reduces operator interaction. The system draws up to 36 amps of vehicle office, weighs approximately 69 lbs, and measures 13″H × 14″W × 19″D. Vehicle Jammer System STAR V : protective modular jam system STAR V 740 is intended for a security against RCIED. The system either prevents the activation of RCIED or it can importantly reduce the distance for a fail energizing. The system is used to protect the special EOD teams or for a convoy protection. The jam is performed by random frequency sweeping in a few frequencies sub-bands at the same time. Each sub-band has a possibility to set up to two communication windows for reciprocal radio communication. The obstruct system is equipped with 8 broadband transmitters, 3 low-pass filters, 1 combiner, 6 omni-directional antennas and 8 wide-band digital exciters. The higher level of jamming efficiency is accomplished by using more analogue subsystems and digital engineering. The jam organization is intended as a mobile organization which is installed in the vehicle. It is equipped with the Omni-directional antenna that are depart of the organization. The output world power of the jammer is up to 740 W. The jamming system is easily controlled and the failures are well diagnosed. It is controlled on the front panel. The hustler can switch on/off finical transmitting systems and subsystems, set up to three jamming sub-bands in each. Dwell time in each sub-band can besides be modified. Jammer is equipped with IP, RS 485 and USB interface. system is besides equipped with special SW which can be installed on a notebook or a personal computer. special distant control condition box is besides included. The organization ‘s electric potential is from 22 to 30 Volts .
HP 3260 H convoy jammer arrangement installed in a GMC vehicle. Convoy Jammer System HP 3260 H : modular jamming system intended to protect surrounding vehicles and personnel against RCIED. Designed for utmost frequency coverage and protection range, the arrangement is used for both, civilian and military motorcades. The modularity enables users to scale the system according to functional requirements and the software allows programming of all sign generators independently to ensure utmost configurability and maximising the effectiveness of the jam signals.
Two soldiers with the 25th Infantry Division engage Thor and Minehound, two counter-IED devices Thor III dismounted CREW system : The Thor III system consists of three dismounted man-pack subsystems, one battery charger, and twenty-four batteries ( BB-2590/U ). Each subsystem contains a R/T ( low band, mid band or high gear set ), a Remote Control Unit ( RCU ), an integration/pack frame, an Rx/Tx Antenna ( low band, mid dance band, or high band ), a GPS antenna, cables, and software. Each subsystem is housed in a disjoined transit case with protective covers. The aim of the Thor III dismounted arrangement is to provide the drug user in the plain with a clothing radio-controlled Improvised explosive Device ( RCIED ) jammer that has been designed to counter an array of frequency divers threats. The system is an expandable, active and reactive, scanning-receiver-based jammer with multiple jamming bespeak sources that allow it to counter multiple coincident threats. Joint IED Neutralizer (JIN) : In 2005, Ionatron attempted to develop an anti IED device that would “ zap ” IEDs from a outdistance by using lasers to ionize the vent and allow man-made lightning to shoot towards the devices detonating them at a safe distance. By using femtosecond lasers light pulses that last less than a ten-trillionth of a moment JIN could carve conductive channels of ionized oxygen in the atmosphere. Through these channels, Ionatron ‘s blaster sent man-made lightning bolts. Thor IED Zappers : The vehicular system is mounted on a remotely controlled weapon post, carrying the laser beam director and high-energy laser and coaxial 12.7 millimeter machine gunman to neutralize improvise explosive devices from a safe, draw distance. [ 5 ] Restricted link [ 6 ] Ultra Wide Band High Powered Electro Magnetics : An UWB-HPEM organization typically consists of the adopt components : a battery-based target stream office supply, an propulsion organization, a semiconductor-based ultra-wideband pulse generator and an ultra-wideband antenna. Depending on the type of threat, it can either set off a sensor-triggered IEDs in a control explosion or prevent it from being remotely detonated by radio or mobile call. A UWB-HPEM system can be loaded onto a vehicle, creating an electromagnetic protective covering zone for a convoy, potentially in combination with early systems. [ 7 ] IED Countermeasure Equipment (ICE) : In the fall of 2004, the Army Research Laboratory ( ARL ) at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and New Mexico State University ‘s Physical Science Laboratory developed a jam system that uses low-power radio frequency energy to block the radio signals that detonate enemy IEDs. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The IED Countermeasure Equipment is typically mounted on a vehicle and is used to neutralize IEDs when avoiding, disarming, or destroying them is not virtual. [ 11 ] So far, several thousand ICE systems have been deployed to U.S. military personnel. [ 12 ]
Ground Ordnance Land Disruptor : G.O.L.D. is a drug user filled, explosively driven Counter-IED arrangement that renders buried IEDs dependable through a combination of break, component separation and extrusion from the ground allowing the IED to remain biometrically entire. [ 13 ] Rhino: Rhino is a boxlike heat device attached to a long pole that can be mounted to the front of a vehicle to prematurely detonate any bury IEDs in battlefront of the vehicle. [ 14 ]
A variety of technologies are used to detect landmines, improvised explosive devices ( IED ) and undischarged artillery ( UXO ), including acoustic sensors, animals and biologically-based detection systems ( bees, dogs, pigs, rats ), chemical sensors, electromagnetic sensors and hyperspectral detector analysis, generalized radar techniques, crunch penetrating radar, lidar and electro-optical sensors ( including hyperspectral and millimeter wave ), magnetic signatures, nuclear sensors, optical sensors, seismic acoustic sensors, and thermal signal detection. Counter-IED Reconnaissance Planes : The U.S. Army ‘s Task Force ODIN-E flies manned reconnaissance aircraft that use an align of full-motion video ( FMV ), electro-optical ( EO ), infrared ( IR ), and man-made aperture radar ( SAR ) imagination sensors to find IEDs. [ 15 ] IED Volumetric Detection : [ 16 ] Microwave Based Explosive Caches Detection : Raytheon UK ‘s Soteria vehicle-mounted stand-off arrangement provides high-definition IED signal detection, confirmation and terror diagnostics from a significant distance. Soteria ‘s ocular serve technology has the postdate capabilities : a high probability of IED detection with a low false convinced rate, signal detection of high, medium, low and zero metal content IEDs, assisted prey recognition, and day and night operability. Non-linear Junction Detector (NLJD) : A portable NLJD allows the operator to search voids and areas where they are unable to gain physical or ocular access, in order to detect electronic components and determine if the area is absolve from IEDs. Laser IED Detection : Scientists are learning to adapt lasers to detect, or get the better of, IEDs. [ 17 ] Mine detectors : A portable, hand-held or tire device to detect immerse IEDs. There are many unlike models from several different companies presently in consumption global by U.S. and alliance forces. These are not your test of the mill metallic element detectors that you can buy at your local store, they are highly sophisticated, extremist medium, programmable devices. [ 18 ]
Unmanned Systems intended for Counter-IED.
current interpretation of PTDS, a widely used Aerostat in combat operations .
Tethered Aerostat over Afghanistan Lightning strike at MEZ Aerostats are balloons equipped with brace electro ocular, infrared, and radar sensors which are manned 24 hours a day. The dogged Threat Detection System ( PTDS ) was the largest and most capable Aerostat ever used in fight. The largest non-combat is the TARS aerostat. First used in 2004 ( Camp Slayer, Iraq ). It can sit for weeks, thousands of feet above a base, forward operating base or fight outpost. Known as the “ unblinking eye ”, Aerostats provide real-time High Definition imagination of the surrounding area, day or night, and are strategically placed for surveillance purposes. The commands controlling it can be US or NATO forces that control its practice and missions. They enhance situational awareness and improve force protection. Aerostats can be used to reconnoiter routes before friendly forces travel them and to provide over watch for unhorse troops or convoys. They can besides serve as a communication and Full Motion Video ( FMV ) relay platform to extend the image and circulate situational awareness. They are linked with respective ground-based sensors, including acoustic sensors that detect and locate weapon arouse or blasts .
- MASINT-UTAMS loom
persistent Threat Detection System ( PTDS ).
The Persistent Threat Detection System ( PTDS ) is a big helium-filled barge than air system designed by Lockheed Martin to provide soldiers long range intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and communication aid. [ 19 ] Since the American Civil War, when Union Soldiers utilized hot vent balloons to serve as a surveillance platform, airship technology has been a part of the Army ‘s armory. As U.S. forces began a troop surge in Afghanistan while maintaining security in Iraq, the want to provide soldiers with a haunting opinion of the battlefield was critical. [ 20 ] In 2003, Lockheed Martin engineers began updating existing naval aerostats with durable materials capable of achieving raise while carrying larger payloads of sensors, cameras and audio equipment. New tethers—lined with a mix of copper wires and fiber-optic cables—transmitted data to a ground control post, which then disseminated near real-time information of hostile activeness to operational forces. [ 21 ] The aerostats are reconnaissance tool, gathering intelligence from 20 miles in every guidance, 24 hours a day, for weeks on end. [ 21 ] In Iraq and Afghanistan, there was a special need for enhance surveillance, specially in the attack to counter improvised explosive devices. [ 22 ] In recently 2013, PTDS was utilized by Customs Border Patrol in Texas to reduce the criminal activities crossing the Rio Grande. Over 700 Field engineers from Lockheed Martin were scattered across both countries with a small 5 man specialist team known as the ‘Tiger Team ‘ used for web site setups, repair and more. The Army Research Laboratory developed and then mounted PTDS with an acoustic-sensor range, known as the Unattended Transient Acoustic MASINT Sensor ( UTAMS ). The technology detects, locates, and cues a collocate imager to transient sounds, such as enemy mortar, gunfire, rocket launches, and IED attacks, and calculates the ground placement of the menace reference. Adding this airborne signal detection – localization of function – cueing capability provides accurate intelligence to PTDS. [ 23 ] PTDS is compatible with other engineering developed by the Army Research Laboratory, such as Serenity Payload and FireFly. [ 20 ] Although the independent equipment used was the L-3 Communications MX-20 analogue and former, digital camera. The like chopine utilized a high power laser that could used for spotting and exposing guerrilla locations in the dark .
“ Fletch ” Lockheed Martin ‘s Field Engineers
The first PTDS was deployed by the US Army in 2004 and 37 PTDS units were acquired by 2010. Lockheed Martin delivered the final PTDS to the US Army in May 2012, bringing the total number of systems procured by the US Army to 66. [ 21 ] late systems were developed and used in the return key to Iraq in 2015. The sign was finally lost to another bidder and the program declined in utilitarian condition up to the complete removal from Afghanistan and Iraqi draw down. The airship has been one of the Army ‘s major weapons since 2004 and was recognized by the Department of Army Engineers and Scientists as the Army ‘s greatest invention in 2005. [ 24 ]
Unmanned Ground Vehicles ( UGV ).
A UGV is a vehicle kit system that advances sensing, localization and motion plan to protect from IED threats and increase operation in autonomous missions. [ 25 ] They typically are adaptable to any tactical wheel vehicle for the determination of oversee autonomous seafaring in either a lead or follow role. UGVs are multi-sensor systems which use registration techniques to provide accurate put estimates without needing to rely on continuous tracking through a jumper cable vehicle or GPS signals. When equipped with a UGV, each vehicle is able of navigation to the aim independently .