Chemical colonial
Potassium titanyl phosphate ( KTP ) is an inorganic colonial with the rule KTiOPO4. It is a blank solid. KTP is an significant nonlinear ocular material that is normally used for frequency-doubling diode-pumped solid-state lasers such as Nd : YAG and other neodymium -doped lasers. [ 1 ]

synthesis and structure.

The compound is prepared by the reaction of titanium dioxide with a concoction of KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 near 1300 K. The potassium salts serve both as reagents and flux. [ 2 ] The material has been characterized by x ray crystallography. KTP has an orthorhombic crystal structure. It features octahedral Ti ( IV ) and tetrahedral phosphate sites. potassium has a eminent coordination number. All heavy atoms ( Ti, P, K ) are linked entirely by oxides, which interconnect these atoms. [ 2 ]

functional aspects.

Crystals of KTP are highly guileless for wavelengths between 350–2700 nm with a reduced infection out to 4500 new mexico where the crystal is efficaciously opaque. Its second-harmonic generation ( SHG ) coefficient is about three times higher than KDP. It has a Mohs unfeelingness of about 5. [ 3 ] KTP is besides used as an ocular parametric oscillator for approximate IR generation up to 4 µm. It is particularly suited to high power operation as an optical parametric oscillator due to its senior high school price brink and big crystal aperture. The senior high school academic degree of birefringent walk-off between the pump signal and baseless beams present in this material specify its consumption as an ocular parametric oscillator for very low power applications. The material has a relatively high threshold to optical damage ( ~15 J/cm² ), an excellent ocular nonlinearity and excellent thermal stability in theory. In exercise, KTP crystals need to have static temperature to operate if they are pumped with 1064 nanometer ( infrared, to output 532 nanometer green ). however, it is prone to photochromic damage ( called grey tracking ) during high-octane 1064 nm second-harmonic coevals which tends to limit its use to low- and mid-power systems. early such materials include potassium titanyl arsenate ( KTiOAsO4 ) .
[2] structure of KTP viewed down b axis. Color code : red = O, purple = P, bright blue = K, dark blasphemous = Ti ) .

Some applications.

It is used to produce “ greenlight ” to perform some laser prostate gland operating room. KTP crystals coupled with Nd : YAG or neodymium : YVO4 crystals are normally found in green laser pointers. [ 4 ]

KTP is besides used as an electro-optic modulator, optical waveguide material, and in directing couplers .

sporadically punt potassium titanyl phosphate ( PPKTP ).

Periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate ( PPKTP ) consists of KTP with interchange domain regions within the crystal for respective nonlinear ocular applications and frequency conversion. It can be wavelength tailored for efficient second-harmonic generation, sum-frequency generation, and deviation frequency genesis. The interactions in PPKTP are based upon quasi-phase-matching, achieved by periodic pole of the crystal, whereby a structure of regularly spaced ferroelectric domains with alternate orientations are created in the material. PPKTP is normally used for Type 1 & 2 frequency conversions for pump wavelengths of 730–3500 nm. other materials used for periodic pole are wide ring gap inorganic crystals like lithium niobate ( resulting in sporadically pole lithium niobate, PPLN ), lithium tantalate, and some organic materials .

See besides.

other materials used for laser frequency doubling are

References.

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