Of its four phosphate production plants in Europe, Tessenderlo Chemie in Ham, northern Belgium, is the biggest, producing more than 50 % of the group ’ s total run phosphate production. At the Ham plant, the company produces feed-grade phosphates based on HCl produced from the sulfate output serve. This unique process was originally developed in 1929 at the original Tessenderlo Chemie factory nearby.
Rock phosphate arrives by gravy boat from North Africa along the King Albert duct, where it is drop and stored before being crushed and sieved cook to be purified using the hydrochloric acid dissolving method outlined in Figure 1. dissolution in HCl results in the formation of a monocalcium phosphate solution. The gradual nature of the profligacy summons affords the final examination product a number of advantages in its use as a feed phosphate. first, as a low temperature process, HCl dissolution avoids the constitution of meta- and pyro-phosphates, which are biologically unavailable. second, the crystallization process reduces unevenness in musical composition and improves the purity of the end product, which is about free of undesirable contaminants. finally, the hydrate shape of the intersection is considered to be nutritionally beneficial, due largely to its regular crystal structure. After a counter current purification serve, the dihydrated dicalcium phosphate crystals are precipitated, separated, filtered and dried. The crystalline social organization is alone to the HCl production process. The dicalcium phosphates is further used for the output of monocalcium phosphate at the factory in Ham.
The HCl process, however, is not the only method acting by which Tessenderlo ’ s phosphate products are produced. The “ Windmill ” range of tip phosphates, produced at the Vlaardingen plant near Rotterdam in the Netherlands, is produced by the alleged “ moisture acerb ” road. The rock phosphate is first digested with sulphuric acerb, yielding phosphorous acerb. After further filtration, refining and defluorination steps, this “ fertilize grad ” phosphorous acerb is reacted with a calcium generator such as calcium oxide and/or limestone under strictly controlled conditions. therefore, anhydrous dicalcium phosphate ( CaHPO4 ) is formed. Speciality phosphates such as monoammonium- and magnesium phosphates are besides produced here. At the group ’ mho plant in Cologna-Veneta, near Verona in Italy, a third base roll of feed phosphates is manufactured, chiefly for the italian marketplace. The production of Italphos® dicalcium phosphate is based on a exchangeable output principle to the Windmill dicalcium phosphate. By reacting the resulting DCP far with purify feed grade phosphorous acid MDCP ( a complex of mono- and dicalcium phosphate ) or MCP is produced thereby increasing its morning star content far and decreasing its calcium : P ratio.
What’s in a phosphate?
With a diverseness of different feed phosphate products from the lapp company obviously competing with each early in an already busy market, it may seem slightly strange at first glance that Tessenderlo should maintain such a high horizontal surface of home competition. however, in doing so, the group is well placed to make a qualify assessment of the choice of different phosphate products for different applications ( table 1 ), based on their chemical writing. And it has done so extensively, forming a database of the efficacy of different phosphate sources in terms of their phosphorus content, calcium to phosphorus proportion and digestibility in different diets for different species, strains and ages of pigs and poultry. A major dispute between unlike phosphates is their phosphorus message. board 2 shows how this can vary between products. Monocalcium phosphate ( MCP ) produced by enrichment of DCP with defluorinated feed-grade phosphorous acid has the highest morning star capacity on a weight footing. This, say Zwart and Bleukx, is a major reason why many tip manufacturers and producers are beginning to change from DCP to MCP. The increase phosphorus content and high solubility of MCP offer increased flexibility in diet conceptualization. Animal trials are the real test
Although the phosphorus message and solubility measurements that can easily be made in the lab are a good initial indication of the feeding prize of a phosphate informant, there is of course, no ersatz for digestibility values measured in feeding trials. table 3 shows the results of independent digestibility trials that have been performed on versatile different fertilize phosphates. It is clear from these that the choice of product as defined by its form ( monocalcium-, monodicalcium-, dicalcium, calcium-magnesium, magnesium or ammonium imprint ) ; and the production process used has an effect on the digestibility of the concluding product and, therefore, on the dietary inclusion body level required. The data supplied were measured using semitrailer synthetic and virtual diets. Way out in battlefront in the digestibility stakes are the monocalcium phosphates for both pigs and poultry. In particular, the MCP derived from DCP produced via the HCl production action has particularly high digestibility because of its purity. The lowest feed value is afforded by the anhydrous dicalcium phosphates. The second reason for feed manufacturers to change from anhydrous DCP to MCP .