You can not install guest additions when using Big Sur. I have seen some hacks posted that are speculate to work, but I have never found one that works with a Big Sur guest .
here are some ideas of how to substitute the functionality that guest additions may have offered .

  • Screen Size: The instruction given below can be used to change the television resoluteness of the Big Sur node. For more information, see section 3.14.1. Video Modes in EFI of the on-line Oracle® VM VirtualBox® User Manual. You can besides download a PDF interpretation from here .
     VBoxManage setextradata "VM name" VBoxInternal2/EfiGraphicsResolution HxV
    

    You should enter this command with the guest is powered off.

  • Transfer Files by Network: You can use SMB to connect to the guest by the host or any other calculator on the LAN. You should make sure the Attached to: for the network is set to Bridged Adaptor .
  • Transfer Files by USB: You can attach a physical USB flash drive to the guest. To do so, you must first eject the flash drive on the host. When the guest powers off or ejects the flash drive, the host will mechanically attempt to mount any volumes on the news bulletin drive. If the host has USB 3 ports, then USB 3.0 (xHCI) Controller should be selected under setting for ports.

note : VirtualBox defaults to SATA HDD for the guest. You can change this to to SATA SSD or NVMe SDD. entirely NVMe SSD has trim capabilities, which I have found to increase boot times. ( Booting is when trim operations are performed. )

possibly, a better solution would be to avoid VirtualBox all together. VMware nowadays offers the use of Fusion Player for exempt. You do need to create an report to get a license key. VMware Fusion Player is both Big Sur horde and guest compatible with Intel based Macs. besides, installing is simplified. You only need to drag and drop the Install macOS Big Sur lotion into a Fusion Player windowpane and the installer drive is automatically created. In early words, you do not need an ISO or flash drive to install .

bill : You can have both VirtualBox and Fusion Player installed at the same clock. Although, I am not indisputable if using both to run virtual machines at the same fourth dimension is wise .

IMO, the fact that I can not install Big Sur on my 2013 iMac, but can install Big Sur in a virtual machine on the like Mac, just seems wrong ( or unfair ) .

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