Standardization Sector of the ITU
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector ( ITU-T ) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine determine, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for video compaction, between its Member States, Private Sector Members, and Academia Members. ITU-T is one of the three Sectors ( divisions or units ) of the International Telecommunication Union ( ITU ). The calibration efforts of ITU started in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union ( ITU ). ITU became a Specialized representation of the United Nations in 1947. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee ( french : Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique, CCITT ) was created in 1956, and was renamed ITU-T in 1993. [ 1 ] ITU-T has a permanent wave secretariat called the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau ( TSB ), which is based at the ITU headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The current film director of the TSB is Chaesub Lee, whose first 4-year terminus commenced on 1 January 2015, [ 2 ] and whose second 4-year term commenced on 1 January 2019. Chaesub Lee succeeded Malcolm Johnson of the United Kingdom, who was director from 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2014.

primary routine [edit ]

The ITU-T mission is to ensure the efficient and timely production of standards covering all fields of telecommunications and Information Communication Technology ( ICTs ) on a global footing, angstrom well as defining duty and account principles for external telecommunication services. [ 3 ] The international standards that are produced by the ITU-T are referred to as “ Recommendations “ ( with the parole capitalized to distinguish its meaning from the common parlance sense of the news “ recommendation ” ), as they become compulsory alone when adopted as part of a national police. Since the ITU-T is character of the ITU, which is a United Nations specialized agency, its standards carry more courtly external burden than those of most other standards development organizations that publish technical specifications of a like form. [ 4 ]

history [edit ]

At the first step of Napoleon III, the french government invited external participants to a conference in Paris in 1865 to facilitate and regulate international cable services. A result of the conference was the initiation of the precursor of the modern ITU. [ 1 ] At the 1925 Paris conference, the ITU created two advisory committees to deal with the complexities of the external telephone services, known as CCIF, as the french acronym, and with long-distance telegraphy ( CCIT ). [ 5 ] In view of the basic similarity of many of the technical problems faced by the CCIF and CCIT, a decision was taken in 1956 to merge them into a single entity, the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee ( CCITT, in the french acronym ). [ 5 ] The beginning Plenary Assembly of the new organization was held in Geneva, Switzerland in December 1956. In 1992, the Plenipotentiary Conference ( the circus tent policy-making league of ITU ) saw a reform of ITU, giving the Union greater flexibility to adapt to an increasingly complex, interactional and competitive environment. The CCITT was renamed the Telecommunication Standardization Sector ( ITU-T ), as one of three Sectors of the Union alongside the Radiocommunication Sector ( ITU-R ) and the Telecommunication Development Sector ( ITU-D ). [ 6 ] historically, the Recommendations of the CCITT were presented at plenary assemblies for sanction, held every four years, and the broad set of Recommendations were published after each plenary assembly. however, the delays in producing text, and translating them into other working languages, did not suit the fast pace of variety in the telecommunications industry. [ 7 ]

“ real time ” standardization [edit ]

The rise of the personal computer diligence in the early 1980s created a newly park practice among both consumers and businesses of adopting “ run border “ communications engineering even if it was not even standardized. therefore, standards organizations had to put forth standards much faster, or find themselves ratifying de facto standards after the fact. One of the most outstanding examples of this was the open Document Architecture project, which began in 1985 when a profusion of software firms around the world were still furiously competing to shape the future of the electronic function, and was completed in 1999 long after Microsoft Office ‘s then-secret binary star file formats had become established as the ball-shaped de facto standard. The ITU-T now operates under much more streamlined processes. The time between an initial marriage proposal of a gulp document by a extremity company and the final blessing of a full-status ITU-T recommendation can now be ampere short as a few months ( or less in some cases ). This makes the calibration approval process in the ITU-T much more responsive to the needs of rapid engineering development than in the ITU ‘s historical past. [ 8 ] New and updated Recommendations are published on an about casual basis, and about all of the library of over 3,270 Recommendations is now free of charge on-line. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] ( About 30 specifications jointly maintained by the ITU-T and ISO/IEC are not available for complimentary to the public. [ 12 ] ) ITU-T has furthermore tried to facilitate cooperation between the assorted forums and standard-developing organizations ( SDOs ). This collaboration is necessary to avoid duplication of work and the attendant hazard of conflicting standards in the market place. [ 13 ] In the solve of calibration, ITU-T cooperates with other SDOs, for example, the International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) and the Internet Engineering Task Force ( IETF ). [ 14 ]

Development of Recommendations [edit ]

Most of the exploit of ITU-T is carried out by its Sector Members and Associates, while the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau ( TSB ) is the executive arm of ITU-T and coordinator for a number of workshops and seminars to progress existing oeuvre areas and explore new ones. The events cover a wide-eyed range of topics in the field of information and communication technologies ( ICT ) and attract high-level experts as speakers, and attendees from engineers to high-level management from all industry sectors. [ 15 ] The technical work, the development of Recommendations, of ITU-T is managed by Study Groups ( SGs ), such as Study Group 13 for network standards, Study Group 16 for multimedia standards, and Study Group 17 for security standards, which are created by the World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly ( WTSA ) which is held every four years. As depart of the deliberations, WTSA has instructed ITU to hold the Global Standards Symposium, which unlike WTSA is afford to public for participation. The people involved in these SGs are experts in telecommunications from all over the universe. There are presently 11 SGs. Study groups meet face to face ( or virtually under exceptional circumstances ) according to a calendar issued by the TSB. [ 16 ] SGs are augmented by Focus Groups ( FGs ), an instrument created by ITU-T, providing a way to cursorily react to ICT standardization needs and allowing great flexibility in terms of participation and working methods. The key remainder between SGs and FGs is that the latter have greater exemption to organize and finance themselves, and to involve non-members in their work, but they do not have the authority to approve Recommendations. Focus Groups can be created very quickly, are normally ephemeral and can choose their own shape methods, leadership, finance, and types of deliverables. [ 17 ] Current Focus Groups include the ITU-WHO Focus Group on Artificial Intelligence for Health ( FG-AI4H ) a well as Machine Learning for 5G ( which developed Y.3172 ), Quantum Information Technologies for Networks, and Artificial Intelligence for Assisted and Autonomous Driving .

option Approval work [edit ]

The Alternative Approval Process ( AAP ) is a fast-track approval routine that was developed to allow standards to be brought to market in the timeframe that industry now demands. The AAP is defined in ITU-T Recommendation A.8. [ 18 ] This dramatic pass of standards-making by streamlining approval procedures was implemented in 2001 and is estimated to have cut the time involved in this critical expression of the calibration process by 80 to 90 percentage. This means that an median standard that took around four years to approve and publish until the mid nineties, and two years until 1997, can now be approved in an modal of two months, or arsenic fiddling as five weeks. Besides streamlining the underlying procedures involved in the approval process, an important conducive gene to the use of AAP is electronic document treat. Once the approval procedure has begun the respite of the process can be completed electronically, in the huge majority of cases, with no farther forcible meetings.

The introduction of AAP besides formalizes public/private partnership in the blessing process by providing equal opportunities for both sector members and member states in the approval of technical standards. A panel of SG experts drafts a proposal that is then forwarded at an SG suffer to the allow body which decides if it is sufficiently ready to be designated a enlist text and frankincense gives its consent for far review at the adjacent level. After this accept has been given, TSB announces the beginning of the AAP procedure by posting the draft textbook to the ITU-T web site and calling for comments. This gives the opportunity for all members to review the text. This phase, called last call, is a four-week period in which comments can be submitted by member states and sector members. If no comments early than column corrections are received, the Recommendation is considered approve since no issues were identified that might need any far work. however, if there are any comments, the SG chair, in reference with TSB, sets up a remark solution process by the concern experts. The revised text is then posted on the web for an additional review period of three weeks. similar to the last call phase, in additional review the Recommendation is considered as approved if no comments are received. If comments are received, it is apparent that there are some issues that placid need more study, and the blueprint text and all comments are sent to the future Study Group meet for further discussion and potential approval. [ 19 ] Those Recommendations considered as having policy or regulative implications are approved through what is known as the Traditional Approval Process ( TAP ), which allows a longer period for mirror image and comment by extremity states. TAP Recommendations are besides translated into the six working languages of ITU ( Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish ). [ 20 ]

Series and Recommendations [edit ]

ITU-T Recommendations are the names given to telecommunications and calculator protocol specification documents published by ITU-T .

Series of ITU Recommendations [edit ]

ITU-T issues Recommendations that have names like X.500, where ten is the serial and 500 is an identify issue. When a Recommendation is updated, it will ( by and large ) keep the same number, so the year of exit may be necessary to identify a particular version of a Recommendation. The term “ X.500 ” is used both to refer to the specific X.500 Recommendation, and to the stallion family of Recommendations named X.5xx, where the specific X.500 Recommendation forms the introduction and overview of the laid. The huge majority of all finalized Recommendations are available in electronic ( PDF ) form free of accusation to all. Texts that are not free of charge include common ITU-T | ISO / IEC text for which particular arrangements exist. [ 21 ]

key standards published by ITU [edit ]

International Telecommunication Regulations ( ITRs ) [edit ]

In summation to the ITU-T Recommendations, which have non-mandatory condition unless they are adopted in national laws, ITU-T is besides the custodian of a binding international treaty, the International Telecommunication Regulations. The ITRs go back to the earliest days of the ITU when there were two separate treaties, dealing with cable and telephone. The ITRs were adopted, as a individual treaty, at the World Administrative Telegraphy and Telephone Conference held in Melbourne, 1988 ( WATTC-88 ). [ 26 ] The ITRs constitute ten articles which bargain, inter alia, with the definition of international telecommunication services, cooperation between countries and national administrations, safety of life and priority of telecommunications and charging and account principles. The adoption of the ITRs in 1988 is frequently taken as the start of the wide liberalization process in international telecommunication, though a few countries, including United States and United Kingdom, had made steps to liberalize their markets before 1988. [ 27 ] The Constitution and Convention of ITU provides for the amendment of ITRs through a World Conference on International Telecommunications ( WCIT ). accordingly, in 1998 there began a process of revue of the ITRs ; [ 28 ] and in 2009 extensive preparations began for such a conference, WCIT-12. In addition to “ regional preparatory meetings, ” [ 29 ] the ITU Secretariat developed 13 “ Background Briefs on key issues ” that were expected to be discussed at the league. [ 30 ] Convened by erstwhile ITU secretary-general Hamadoun Touré, the Conference, WCIT-12, was then held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, during the menstruation 3–14 December 2014. [ 31 ] [ 32 ]

AI for Good [edit ]

The Standardization Sector of ITU besides organizes AI for Good, the United Nations platform for the sustainable development of Artificial Intelligence .

Hot topics [edit ]

  • ITU-T has expressed a commitment to “bridging the standardization gap” – disparities in the ability of developing countries, relative to developed ones, to access, implement, contribute to and influence international ICT standards.[33]
  • The ICT Security Standards Roadmap[34] has been developed to assist in the development of security standards by bringing together information about existing standards and current standards work in key standards development organizations.
  • The Next Generation Networks (NGN) concept takes into consideration new realities in the telecommunication industry characterized by factors such as; the need to converge and optimize the operating networks and the extraordinary expansion of digital traffic (i.e., increasing demand for new multimedia services, mobility, etc.).
  • ITU newslog (February 2014). First of its kind publication features ITU-T standards for smart grid and home networking.

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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